A wood lathe is a machine is used in the manufacture of pieces with geometric shapes, particularly twisted wood pieces. At present, it represents one of the most vital machines in any industrial procedure. A lathe wood lathe is a tool for machining parts per revolution by removing material in the form of chips or sawdust by means of a cutting tool. Generally, the cutting movement is imparted to the piece rotates on its own axis to an electric motor. That transmits its rotation to the spindle through a gear system. In this guide, we will talk about the use a wood lathe. We will explain how to use a wood lathe, how to take care of it and what warnings and cautions have in use. On this occasion, we will see how to use a wood lathe suitable for lathe processing giving already now common indications to use a wood lathe. In fact, they make their quality depending on the direction of the operator even more if free of knots.
What is a Lathe?
The lathe is a machine tool used for the machining of a piece worked in rotation. Machining with the lathe takes place by chip removal, which is called turning. This tool has ancient origins. Already in ancient times, a basic potter’s wheel is documented. The pulley lathe and the double pedal lathe are perfect in the middle Ages. Today the lathes that are normally used have become electronic and mechanical. However, they survive usual lathes for special work.
Types of Lathe
There are different types of lathe available. The classification carried out according to different product characteristics. Lathes can be classified in the parallel lathe, automatic lathe, copy lathe frontal lathe and vertical lathe, numerical control lathe, turret lathe, wood lathe, multitasking lathe, ceramic lathe and engraving lathe phonographic Industry. This main spindle has different systems for securing the object, for example, clamps, claw plates, auxiliary godmothers, etc. It has a forward movement due to the transverse or longitudinal movement of the piece on which it is working. This movement determines the space traveled by every turn the piece gives on the tool together with the spindle. The movement of a wood lathe can also be non-parallel to the axes. In this case, you must turn the plate under the transverse and adjusting the necessary angle on a graduated scale what will be the preferred tapering shape.
Types of Wood Lathes
There are different types of lathes use a wood lathe for production. The forward movement applies from the turret. This wood lathe for wood is a type of pins of executor controls the operations. The automatic wooden lathes for threading control with a series of buttons regulate the cycle.
Wood Lathe Structure
Learn which are the most important parts used in the lathe during the turning of wood. The live center and the dead center are located at the ends of the machine. That is where the wood fastened to the wheel. The T-brace is located in the center of the lathe and used as a clamp for tools and the wooden block when it put on the lathe.
The counterpoint manages to fix or move in any position along its length and its main function to support the external edge of the piece. The trolley has the advance mechanism, the tool holder, the front panel and the fasteners for the tool. The application for the advance power coupling obtains the clutch for the selected feed rate. The auxiliary carriage has the ability to turn to different angles while the tools that we use the wood lathe supported on the tool holder.
The automatic wood lathes head planned to manufacture the advanced piece to work with little levers. Those moves the cutting tool in and out while the piece of wood passes under the winch. This model can have up to eight spindles. In the event, the wood lathe has that amount of the piece to align eight times to perform the operation of the machine. Each time the car alignment of the part is finished and the spindle must be unloaded.
The wood lathe is to make from the lever of a spoon to the handrails of a grille. You must start with the simplest to do it, as the basics of woodturning before leaving with the export phase. If you want to learn how to use the wood lathe there are hundreds of things you can do in a lathe, from the handle of a spoon to the handrails of a gate. You should start with the elementary to know how to use a wood lathe. Learn the simplest aspects of woodturning before continuing with projects that are more complicated.
How To Use The Lathe For Wood
Learn The Components of Your Lathe
The wood lathe has five main components that are the head, the bench, the advance unit, the car, and the tailstock. The head contains the gears that drive the advance units and the workpiece. It includes the motor, the spindle, the direction of an advance selector, the speed selector and the sector of the advance unit it is to support and for the rotation of the part that supported on the same spindle. Usually, the bench is for as a support for the other units that this wood lathe has.
Choose The Suitable Lathe
To start, you must know which the most used parts are during the turning of wood choose a simple project, like the handle of a hammer. Making a handle involves making an inclined curve for the grip element and a sharp curve for the top part. These are the parts where you must fasten the wood to the wheel. The T support is located in the center of the lathe and is used as a clamp for tools, and the block of wood when it is put on the lathe. Get plans for this project.
Select Accurate Cutting Tools
The depth of the pass is the movement decides the depth of the material extracted from the piece in each pass. However, the quantities of material extracted are generally subject to the profile of the wood lathe, depending on the type of wood. The wood lathe can make cuts in various forms, in the form of, drilling, cylinder, grooving, countersigned, etc. Applying the use of different tools and compatible accessories with forms is varying according to the operation.
Select The Exact Wood Pies
Choose a piece of wood suitable for the project you intend to make. For a beginner, it will be a good idea to use a soft wood. Look for a piece with a uniform grain and a few compact knots. It is always better to avoid turning a piece of split wood or with yielding knots. Each piece of wood to be turned must first rough, perhaps with the aid of a circular saw or disk. It must give a form as close as possible to the one he will have to take. For example, a long piece of wood that will need to get a cylindrical shape will cut initially into an octagonal section. While the pieces of head wood or cut transversely to the fibers, to which it wished to give a form of shell or plate, must be sawn.
Mark The Wood
The wood must cut correctly with the saw. Before turning, it is necessary to mark the centers exactly on both ends of the piece to the machine. These will be the two points to which the piece will be anchored to the lathe. The tip will mount on a drill, while the other will fix to the tailstock. The centers are marked with a pencil. Mark the center of each of the two ends and place it between the two centers of the lathe. Holding the lathe counter head open, insert the piece until it pushed against the center tip. Tighten the head using the knob and push it against the central pin in the opposite head. Make sure that the workpiece is tight and all the joints are tight, otherwise the piece could fly away during processing.
Fix The Wood Properly
As far the long turning of a long wood, the piece must fix on one side to the tailstock, exactly in the middle, instead of on the other side that of the support. It is necessary to cut the face correctly starting from its center. In this way, it will be possible to fix the tip or disk to flatten, depending on the diameter of the piece itself. The notch allows you to secure the grip of the tip, and so the work will be much easier. Finally, it is important to keep in mind that, it is good to use all the protection precautions during woodworking.
- Lift a block on your lathe by inserting one end into the jaw and then centering the other end on the dead center. Turn the lathe at low speed and watch the block. You must be very aware to re-center it when necessary.
- Use a short wood to carve the shape of the hammer handle by placing the short wood on the tool support bar and pressing the blade slowly against the rotator block. Apply pressure on the chisel gouge carefully and move it along by cutting the basic circular shape for your handle.
- Stop the wheel and look at the cut you just made. Re-start the lathe and repeat Step 4 until you realize the use of the chisel gouge and its effect on the wood.
- In order to advance and develop your wood polishing skills, try another project when you have finished the hammer handle. Also, use the right and curved V tools to learn how to use them.
- How to fix the wood on the lathe
- You mark the center with a search center or tracing the two diagonals. Make a reference point with a pointed punch, then a 3 mm deep hole 3-4 mm.
- Mount the drill bit on the drive head and the drill bit Live Tailstock on the other side. Insert the piece of wood between the tips and tighten.
- You have to screw an iron disc with a central hole from the side against the tip if the wood is very big and heavy.
- In the case of planting, the piece will not be able to fly away from the lathe. If heavy, it can hurt and damage.
- In addition to the drill bit and the counter tip supplied with the lathe, there are many models for particular uses.
- If you want to make lamps with a through hole, you have to have the counterpoint with the removable tip. Remove the needle and place the counter-top on the outer conical ring, drilled from the back of the counter with a foil.
- The most common type on small and medium lathes is usually CM2 with a diameter of about 19 mm. Measure the hole on the cone.
- Together with the lathe, you have had the standard pad. The plate is generally to make plates or bowls. Screw it onto the wood and then screw the plate onto the lathe drive head. The screws are 4 mm x 25 mm to use, and in any case, must enter about 15 mm into the wood.
- The screwed part and with the screw holes will be the inside of the plate, the holes will then be removed. There are many diameters of pads that you can buy separately it is good to have at least a couple.
- Place the plate on the wood, to center it. Measure the distance between the plate and the edge in 3-4 points, when the measurements are the same, make a pencil circle on the edge of the plate and mark the points to be drilled for the screws.
- With a pointed punch, you mark them and make 3 mm deep holes. In the case of heavy wood or fiber parallel to the axis of the lathe, also place the counter-top for safety. If you do not want the tip to mark the wood, you can make a small cylinder that fits precisely on the counter. Before starting the lathe, if the piece is heavy, try turning it by hand. If necessary, loosen the belt.
- Make a mark at the low point where it stopped several times. If it always stops at the same point, the weight is unbalanced you have to improve it at the point marked down. You can also do this with an electric planer. When the wood is rounded and the shape is the one you want to make a grip for the spindle. Generally, those who sell the lathe also sell mandrels and other accessories. You can order it together. You can replace jaws with others of different shapes and sizes.
The spindle socket must be a cylindrical digging with sharp edges. The spindle can take wood in compression or expansion. When displacing the wood between the tips, take a small step at one end. This system is generally to make glasses and grinders. This step must rest against the protruding part of the jaws and do not touch the bottom. The diameter that guarantees the best seal is just over the minimum with the spindle with medium jaws. Make a diameter of 36-38 mm. The best jaws in compression are cylindrical. Insert the jaws inside a hole and push outwards.
The hole must be cylindrical with sharp edges, 3-5 mm deep, and slightly above the minimum diameter with the mandrel completely closed. With the spindle with medium jaws, make a diameter of 50-51 mm. With the spindle with standard jaws, make a diameter of 45.5-47 mm. With the small spindle of Ax, you can make the 35 mm hole. With the mandrel fitted with large jaws, you can compress a 115 mm diameter cylinder or a 100 mm side panel, turns and displace the end away from the spindle, then turn it to make the rest of the cylinder.
If you do not have a spindle and want to make dishes or bowls, the simplest system is the martyr. Look for a piece of 18-20 mm thick plywood, preferably birch. Cut the plate diameter round and round the edges. Glue the martyr on the bottom of your plate, glue the two sides, then press a piece of newspaper interposed, wait 24 hours, and screw on the plate. Enter the screws 15 mm in the martyr and do not touch the good wood.
With the middle jaws and spindle, the spindle socket must be about 50 mm. If you have a drill press and a 50 mm drill, mark the center of the wood. Use a drill to make a 4-5 mm deep hole and have the spindle socket ready. The 65 mm small spindle with medium grippers fits perfectly on the 35 mm hole. The only drawback is that there remains a small conical hole in the center. Drill the hole on the side that will dig, mounted on the expanding mandrel. Rough out and finish the outside of the bowl, making a spindle grip in the base. Turn the wood in the chuck and you can dig and remove the hole you had done with the drill.
Set The Plate And Tailstock
If you want to roll out the outside of a medium or large disc and you do not want any signs of screws or marks on the wood. If you can map it primary thick, then fix a piece of emery cloth on the plate with double-sided adhesive. Put the wood against the plate and the counterpoint with a martyr that pushes against it. The canvas prevents the wood from moving and the counter tip holds it in place. Turn the cylindrical exterior back without leaving marks on the flat part. You can also make a groove from the side against the tip that is the right size as a spindle grip. If you measure the jaws well you can make the grip that works in both expansion and compression. These iron rings screwed onto the wood and are expanded by the spindle. The method guarantees that by assembling and removing the wood from the mandrel it will not bruise. It is the centering is always the same, especially on softwood. There are various diameters.
With Return Jaws
When the diameter of the workpiece to take exceeds the spindle limits, the special jaws are used. Up to a certain diameter, you can buy them together with the spindle, besides you have to make them. In the expansion, they can take up to 160 mm, in compression up to 140 mm. The claws have been enlarged to take the 45 cm diameter ring. These extensions are made with 8 mm thick, the 8 internal holes are milled and the external holes are threaded directly possible rear nut. With the godmother, you can buy special claws, flat aluminum and with soft conical pins. You can use both compression and expansion. It is to reduce the spindle grip below the plates or make large rings.
Type For Plate
The type for spindle usually supplied with requires a hole of about 10 mm deep 3 cm. The plate type to give with the plate and requires a hole of 4-5 mm deep 2 cm. After screwing the screw into the wood, tighten the head with the spindle, return and make the spindle grip. Then the spindle opens and the valve removed with a spanner, after having assembled the piece on the spindle.
How The Woodturning Works
The wood lathe does not differ much from that used for metal processing. Its structure is, however, simpler and lighter. The trolley is only present in those machines designed to turn the elements that will have to cylindrical perfectly, for example, the table legs, and the handles and so on. Otherwise, the trolley will replace by a support. That can move by hand and fixed by means of a bolt on which the operator will support the tool while turning.
You can make turning by hand this is possible thanks to the softness of the material. That will allow a complete control for the formation of exacting shapes and decorations. Often there is not a self-centering spindle. There will be only one perforated disc. On which the piece of wood will fix with screws. The tailstock will always be present since sometimes, it will be necessary to work long pieces of wood or you will have to make axial holes.
What Tools Do You Need To Work With A Woodworking Lathe?
Usually, some types of tools are to develop materials using the lathe. It is usually used gouges very helpful tools for roughing, digging and profiling. Moreover, scrapers with similar side wires are used. Another tool used in the machining lathe is the cut-off. They are to work also tools for parting off, chisels with oval section round and square trip scraps; burnishing mills, tilted point chisels, thickness gauges, and tools for Chinese balls and for threading.
Warnings And Cautions When Using Woodturning
Here are some warnings to use these unique machines. First, read the user manual before using the lathe. In this way, you will have many specific instructions on the characteristics and safety rules of the machine.
Choose a second project that needs extra skill and start practicing new techniques, such as the leg of a chair with two or three ribbed parts. As you gain control over the lathe, choose projects that are more difficult. Stop the wheel and look at the wood regularly to see the results of your efforts. In this way, you will begin to learn how to make different effects on wood. The lathe-cutting tool should make from the right material and the soil at the correct angles to the machine a piece of work efficiently.
The most common cutting tool is the underutilized general-purpose high-speed steel. These drill bits are generally inexpensive, easy to grind on a bench or a pedestal mill, takes a lot of abuse and wear. It is strong enough for all types of repair and manufacturing. High-speed steel drill bits can handle the heat that is generated during cutting and does not change after cooling. These drill bits are perfect to turn, facing boring and other lathe operations. Drill bits made of special materials, Such as ceramics, carbides; diamonds, casting alloys are capable of machine parts at a very high speed. But they are fragile and expensive for normal lathe work. High-speed steel drill bits are obtainable in many shapes and sizes to fit any lathe operation.
All turners should always be aware of the safety risks that are associated with the use of the pulley and should know all security precautions to keep away from injuries and accidents. Avoid and ignorance is two big threats to special safety. Other risks can be mechanically working relationships with the lathe, such as appropriate machine maintenance and configuration. Some important precautions to follow when using lathes are the following:
- The correct dress is important; watches remove rings and, roll covers above the elbows.
- Do not change the spindle speeds until the lathe stops completely.
- Handle sharp scissors, centers, and exercises with care.
- Always stop the lathe before making adjustments.
- Remove fastening wrenches and keys before operating
- Always wear protective eye protection.
- Handle strong dishes with the care and safety of the shapes around a block of wood when a plate is installed.
- Know the emergency stop situation before using the winch.
- Do not lean on the winch.
- Never file turned unless the file has a handle.
- Never leave tools directly in the lathe shape. If a disconnected table is not available, use a broad board with a ribbon on each side to put on the shapes.
- Protect the lanes around the grinding or presentation.
- Keep the projection tools as short as possible.
- File for lefties if possible.
- Do not try to measure the work while it is turned on.
- Use tweezers or a brush to remove chips and chips, never your hands.
- Use both hands when sanding the workpiece. Do not wrap the sandpaper or cloth around Emory’s piece.
Lathe Care and Maintenance
Lathes are the high accuracy machine tools designed to run throughout the day if it operated and maintained correctly. You must lubricate the lathes and analyze the adjustment before the operation. Improper lubrication or movable nuts and bolts can cause excessive wear and dangerous conditions. The shapes are precision ground surfaces, should not use as other tool tables, and should keep clean of sand and dirt. The feed screw and the gears should check regularly for metal chips that could be present in the gear mechanisms.
Check each lathe before the process of the missing or broken safety pins. Ask the operator’s instructions before attempting to lift any lathe. Newly installed lathes or lathes must have level properly before any operation to keep away from oscillation and vibration. Any lathes that are transported outside of a normal workshop environment should be protected from dust, excessive heat, and very cold. Change the lubricant regularly if working in dusty conditions. In warm work areas, be careful to avoid overheating the engine or damaging the seals. In hot working areas, take extra care to avoid overheating the motor or damaging any seals. Operate the lathe at slower speeds than usual when working in cold environments.
With the wood lathe, you will have the opportunity to use a wood lathe to create easy and useful domestic tools. You can also make good-looking decorative projects such as cups, candlesticks. There are many machines are available of different sizes from hobby models, which positioned cheerfully on a worktable to big industrial models that weigh quintals and are very technical products. All lathe models share some basic elements. We recommend you to know how to use a wood lathe with the practice in a project that requires better skill so that you can learn more techniques.